Question:What is the nature of the three nuclear radiations?
The Alpha Particle is composed of 2 protons and 2 neutons, which makes it identical to the nucleus of a Helium atom.
In fact radioactive decay is the origin of the Helium that is mined on Earth.
After the Alpha particle has lost its kinetic energy by colliding with atoms it finds a couple of electrons and retires as a helium atom.
The Beta Particle is a fast moving electron.
An atoms nucleus contains no electrons so the beta particle must be created in some way when the atom decays.
In fact one of the atoms neutrons changes into a proton and an electron (the beta particle)
Gamma Radiation is just a Gamma wave.
Gamma rays are only emiited after a Beta or Alpha decay or a nuclear fission event, and are the way in which a nucleus becomes more stable by releasing excess energy.